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The Lead Episode 21: A Discussion of Mind the Gap - Sex Disparity in Salaries Among Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Electrophysiologists
Though the proportion of women in the medical field has grown, disparities continue to exist. This study examined the salaries, academic ranking and years of experience among pediatric electrophysiology providers. Using the membership of the Pediatric and Adult Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES), survey data was examined. Of the 147 respondents (67%), the authors found a pay disparity among women physicians at a 0.78 ratio. The only indepedent predictors of a higher salary were: 1) male sex, 2) years in practice and 3) practicing within the United States.
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the pay disparity among pediatric electrophysiologists.
  • Examine the barriers that exist to equal pay.
Article Authors and Podcast Contributors
Article Authors
Maully J Shah, Anne M Dubin, Susan P Etheridge, Elizabeth V Saarel, Elizabeth A Stephenson, Carolina A Escudero

Podcast Contributors
Peter F. Aziz, MD, FHRS, CEPS-P, of Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Kara S. Motonaga, MD, FHRS, CEPS-P, of Stanford University
Elizabeth S. DeWitt, MD, CEPS-P, of Boston Children’s Hospital
Disclosure Policy

ACE Disclosure Policy

The Heart Rhythm Society is committed to the provision of Accredited Continuing Education (formerly known as Continuing Medical Education (CME)) that is balanced, objective, and evidence based. HRS adheres to the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) which require that those individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity (including, but not limited to, planners, faculty, authors, committee members, content reviewers, editors, and staff) disclose all financial relationships with an ACCME-defined ineligible company* within the 24 months prior to the disclosure.


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ACCME Definition:

*An ineligible company is one whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on patients.

Examples of such organizations include:

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  • Bio-medical startups that have begun a governmental regulatory approval process
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  • Reagent manufacturers or sellers


All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Host Disclosure(s):
P. Aziz: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose. 

Contributor Disclosure(s):
K. Motonaga: Stocks (Publicly Traded): Doximity; Fellowship Support: Medtronic
E. DeWitt: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose. 

Staff Disclosure(s) (note: HRS staff are NOT in control of educational content. Disclosures are provided solely for full transparency to the learner):
J. Glenn: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose. 
S. Sailor: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose.
Availability: On-Demand
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered:
No Credit Offered
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