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The Lead Episode 24: A Discussion of Catheter Ablation in End-Stage Heart Failure with Atrial Fibrillation
William H. Sauer, MD, FHRS, CCDS, of Brigham and Women's Hospital is joined by Kolade Muchaili Agboola, MD, and Akshay Suvas Desai, MD, MPH, of Brigham and Women's Hospital to discuss the results and implications of the CASTLE-HTx trial.
Learning Objectives
  • To understand the methods and results of the CASTLE-HTx trial
  • To recognize the limitations of the CASTLE-HTx trial and how the trial contributes to our understanding of the role of ablation for the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with severe HF.
Article Authors and Podcast Contributors
Article Authors
Sohns C, Fox H, Marrouche NF, Crijns HJ, Costard-Jaeckle A, Bergau L, Hindricks G, Dagres N, Sossalla S, Schramm R, Fink T, on behalf of the CASTLE-HTx Investigators

Podcast Contributors
William H. Sauer, MD, FHRS, CCDS, of Brigham and Women's Hospital
Kolade Muchaili Agboola, MD, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Akshay Suvas Desai, MD, MPH, of Brigham and Women's Hospital
Disclosure Policy

ACE Disclosure Policy

The Heart Rhythm Society is committed to the provision of Accredited Continuing Education (formerly known as Continuing Medical Education (CME)) that is balanced, objective, and evidence based. HRS adheres to the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) which require that those individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity (including, but not limited to, planners, faculty, authors, committee members, content reviewers, editors, and staff) disclose all financial relationships with an ACCME-defined ineligible company* within the 24 months prior to the disclosure.


Any individual who refuses to disclose financial relationships is disqualified from participating in HRS ACE-certified activities. Owners and employees of ACCME-defined ineligible companies may have no role in the planning or implementation of ACE activities without a special written exemption from the HRS Chief Learning Officer that will be granted only in specific circumstances that meet ACCME requirements.

ACCME Definition:

*An ineligible company is one whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on patients.

Examples of such organizations include:

  • Advertising, marketing, or communication firms whose clients are ineligible companies
  • Bio-medical startups that have begun a governmental regulatory approval process
  • Compounding pharmacies that manufacture proprietary compounds
  • Device manufacturers or distributors
  • Diagnostic labs that sell proprietary products
  • Growers, distributors, manufacturers or sellers of medical foods and dietary supplements
  • Manufacturers of health-related wearable products
  • Pharmaceutical companies or distributors
  • Pharmacy benefit managers
  • Reagent manufacturers or sellers


All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Host Disclosure(s):
W. Sauer: Honoraria/Speaking/Consulting Fee: Biotronik, Biosense Webster, Inc., Abbott, Boston Scientific; Research (Contracted Grants for PIs Named Investigators Only): Medtronic

Contributor Disclosure(s):
K. Agboola: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose. 
A. Desai: Honoraria/Speaking/Consulting Fee: Abbott, Novartis, AstraZeneca, BioFourmis, Regeneron, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Cytokinetics, AxonTherapies, Avidity Biosciences, Medpace, Merck, New Amsterdam Pharma, Parexel, Roche Diagnostics, GlaxoSmithKline, NovoNordisk, Veristat, Verily/Google, Zydus, River2Renal; Research (Contracted Grants for PIs Named Investigators Only): Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Abbott Medical, AstraZeneca, Novartis

Staff Disclosure(s) (note: HRS staff are NOT in control of educational content. Disclosures are provided solely for full transparency to the learner):
J. Glenn: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose. 
S. Sailor: No relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose.
Availability: On-Demand
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered:
No Credit Offered
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